Confira aqui a monografia do pesquisador do ISAPE, Guilherme Henrique Simionato dos Santos, sobre a relação entre os conceitos operacionais de Antiacesso e Negação de Área (A2/AD) e de Air-Sea Battle (ASB ou Batalha Aeronaval) e a polaridade no Sistema Internacional. Um dos fatores-chave para esta é a inexpugnabilidade, i.e. a capacidade de um país manter a sua soberania frente a qualquer agressão externa. O trabalho mostra que a inexpugnabilidade da China se dá através de seu processo de modernização militar focado no A2/AD, mas que, em contrapartida, os Estados Unidos desenvolveram a ASB, cujo objetivo é garantir o acesso estadunidense à região do Leste e Sudeste Asiático a despeito do A2/AD chinês. Dessa forma, a ASB seria uma estratégia não declarada de primazia, pois prega a destruição da rede de informações e de mísseis da China, negando a Pequim uma capacidade de retaliação.
Confira aqui o artigo dos pesquisadores associados do ISAPE Luis Rodrigo Machado e Raul Cavedon Nunes conjuntamente com Pedro Txai Brancher e Bruno Kern Duarte publicado na revista Conjuntura Austral que procura avaliar a Política de Defesa e a doutrina naval da República Popular da China à luz de seus desafios estratégicos. Para isso são discutidos: os desafios estratégicos chineses em seu entorno regional; a adoção por parte da China da doutrina da Defesa Ativa e sua relação com as capacidades de Antiacesso e Negação de Área (A2/AD); e por fim,a modernização naval chinesa, centrada nos mísseis e suas plataformas de entrega para a realização das tarefas de A2/AD e a efetivação da Defesa Ativa. O trabalho conclui que a modernização militar naval da China visa a responder aos objetivos doutrinários de preparação da Defesa Ativa e A2/AD, bem como à manutenção do desenvolvimento econômico e das Políticas Externa e de Defesa chinesa sem, entretanto, possuir capacidade de projeção de poder além de sua região.
A Marinha dos EUA pela primeira vez atirou um missíl tático de defesa de navio feito pela Raytheon Missile Systems de um navio de combate litorâneo. Míssil “Rolling Airframe Missile” (RAM) foi disparado do navio USS Coronado, utilizando-se o sistema de defesa SeaRAM, da mesma empresa. O SeaRam detectou, engajou e atirou com sucesso contra o alvo. O sistema antimíssil poderia ser usado para neutralizar mísseis antinavio chineses.
O Irã está ampliando as suas capacidades militares de antiacesso e negação de área, também conhecidas como A2/AD. O país está desenvolvendo novas tecnologias de mísseis que melhorarão as possibilidades de travar guerras assimétricas na região.
Conheça os projetos de mísseis inteligentes de 2030, supervelozes e capazes de interferir/bloquear radares, que devem mudar o modo que as Forças Armadas dos Estados Unidos realizam operações militares.
Meet the Super-Fast, Radar-Jamming, Unnervingly Intelligent Missiles of 2030
Foreign Policy – 15/11/2013 – por Zach Rosenberg
In the past few weeks, the Pentagon and its major contractors have been trotting out their designs for the aircraft of the future — from a stealthy, hypersonic spy plane to a combat, carrier-hopping drone to a futuristic bomber. But ironically, none of these planes will likely define the U.S. armed forces of, say, 2030. It’s the wild weapons they’ll carry that could be military game-changers.
The crown jewel is the Long Range Strike-Bomber (LRS-B), being designed under tight secrecy. LRS-B is supposed to replace either the B-52 or B-1 or some combination thereof (nobody’s quite sure yet). Designed for penetrating strike and nuclear weapons, it is this bomber that is meant to lead any bombing campaign, slipping into enemy airspace undetected and dropping bombs on the most heavily-defended targets. Northrop Grumman (which designed the B-2) and a Boeing-Lockheed team are both designing competitors, but details are scarce — nearly everything about the program is classified.
The F-35, currently under production, is supposed to become the backbone of the USAF fleet. By 2030 the oldest operational aircraft will have a decade in service, and new versions might still be rolling out of the factory. It’s designed to be the new catch-all, a performer of all but master of none. But as the most modern aircraft on the production line it can do things its predecessors can’t, and it shows how the USAF is changing the way it fights.
The F-35 is stealthy, but it’s not that stealthy. It won’t be able to dip into enemy airspace unnoticed like the LRS-B will, so the focus is how to make it more effective from further away. The radar is designed to share detailed targeting information via datalink with other aircraft — one F-35 can hang back and turn on its radar, which gives its position away to the target but keeps it far from danger, while another can sneak in and fire a missile without giving itself away.
More and more, those missiles are going to be smarter and capable of new things, not just blowing things up. Rather than risk people and valuable airplanes, why not just let the missile do the work? It’s getting easier to pack missiles full of fuel and electronics, making them more like miniature drones than the old dumb-bombs. Some missiles, like Raytheon’s new MALD-J, contain small radar jammers and can be fired almost 600 miles from the target.
Future versions could have electronic surveillance equipment, sending data back home, or even the means to inject viruses into computer networks. Also look forward to things like the Israeli IAI Harop, a hybrid missile/UAV that can circle overhead for long periods of time, waiting for a whiff of electronic scent and guiding itself in.
One promising development is the High-Speed Strike Weapon, a hypersonic ground attack missile, capable of launching from thousands of miles away and streaking towards the target too fast for anyone to hit. At least, that’s the idea. At that speed it might not even need a warhead, destroying targets with sheer kinetic energy. The program is in its infancy, and sustained hypersonic flight is very tough — but we’ll see. Come 2030 there could be B-52s — among the oldest aircraft in the inventory — launching hypersonic cruise missiles by the dozen.
And what of the drones used so widely today? After Afghanistan winds down there will certainly not be a need for as many as we now have. But a potential Predator replacement, the MQ-X, is dead in the water, and while the USAF is closely watching the Navy’s experiments with the X-47B carrier-hopping drone, there are no concrete plans to buy anything at the moment. But it’s hard to imagine they wouldn’t put those new capabilities onto UAVs, and indeed there are persistent rumors of secret bomb-carrying UAVs flying in the desert, but nothing concrete and verifiable has yet emerged.
All of those are good ideas, but the potential costs are enormous, and in the days of sequestration few people have the stomach to promote gigantic programs. Even next year’s budgets are uncertain, and between the Pentagon’s five-year planning frames and the regular shifts of their political sponsors, nobody really knows what programs will make it to 2030. It could be all of them. It could be just one. We’ll have to wait and see.
A empresa Lockheed Martin testou pela segunda vez com êxito um novo míssil antinavio furtivo (stealth) de longo alcance desenvolvido para a Marinha e a Força Aérea dos EUA, cujo projeto tenta superar a estratégia chinesa de antiacesso/negação de área (A2/AD).
US Tests New Stealthy Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile
The Diplomat – 15/11/2013 – por Zachary Keck
Lockheed Martin conducted the second successful test of the new Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) it is developing for the U.S. Navy and Air Force. The missile will be crucial in the U.S. military’s efforts to defeat Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) strategies, including China’s in the Asia-Pacific.
According to a press release published on Thursday, a U.S. Air Force B-1B bomber carrying the LRASM flew from Dyess Air Force Base in Texas to the Sea Range at Point Mugu, California where it “released the LRASM, which navigated through all planned waypoints receiving in-flight targeting updates from the Weapon Data Link. After transitioning to autonomous guidance, LRASM identified the target using inputs from the onboard sensors. The missile then descended for final approach, verified and impacted the target.”
The LRASM is a DARPA and U.S. Navy-funded program meant to provide the Navy and U.S. Air Force with an offensive anti-surface weapon (OASuW) to counter the growing threats from Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) doctrines. It is one of the major alternatives for the OASuW that is being considered.
The press release described LRASM as a “LRASM is an autonomous, precision-guided anti-ship standoff missile.” Previously, Lockheed Martin has said of the missile: “The long range capability of LRASM will enable target engagement from well outside the range of direct counter-fire weapons. LRASM will also employ active and passive survivability features to penetrate advanced integrated air defense systems. The combination of range, survivability, and lethality ensures mission success.”
In light of the proliferation of cyber capabilities, Lockheed has placed a special premium on reducing the missile’s “dependence on ISR platforms, network links, and GPS navigation” in order to allow it to survive in “aggressive electronic warfare environments.” To that end, the LRASM “employs a multi-mode sensor, weapon data link and an enhanced digital anti-jam global positioning system to detect and destroy specific targets within a group of ships.”
It will have air and surface-launched capability, travel at subsonic speeds, and carry a 1,000-pound penetrator and blast-fragmentation warhead.
Lockheed boasted in the press release that the LRASM leverages “a significant number of parts and assembly-process synergies” from its Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile Extended Range (JASSM-ER) program. The LSRAM and the JASSM-ER are made on the same production line.
In 2009, Lockheed’s LRASM-A and the LRASM-B variants won a DARPA competition to fund what it hoped would be the U.S. Navy’s new air-and-sea launched long-range anti-surface missiles. Based on their success in Phase 1, in 2010 DARPA green lighted Phase-2 development of both the LRASM variants, although it later axed the LRASM-B, which was technically much more complicated, at least for the time being.
However, Lockheed used the cancellation of LRASM-B to begin investing independently of DARPA in a LRASM-A that can launched from its MK 41 Vertical Launching System. In September, Lockheed conducted a private test of the MK41 VLS’s ability to launch a LRASM Boosted Test Vehicle (BTV). It succeeded.
Under the DARPA contract, three air-launched tests of the LRASM are scheduled for 2013. The first air-launched test of the LRASM was announced by the company in early September. It was also successful. Next year the company is expected to conduct two ship-based tests of the missile.
The successes come at a critical time as the U.S. Navy’s long-range and anti-ship capabilities have waned. Rep. Randy Forbes (R-VA) warned about this in a wide-ranging and engaging interview with Real Clear Defense that was published this week.
“We are technically ‘out-sticked’ by Chinese anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCM) right now,” Forbes said when asked the capabilities by RCD’s Editor-in-Chief Dustin Walker. “The Navy’s own ASCM, the Harpoon, is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system. Sounds technical, but in fact it was designed in the 1970s and now does not have the range or survivability to operate against more sophisticated anti-surface threats we are seeing from the Chinese PLA Navy today…. My subcommittee is now playing a leading role in reviewing the range of options for a new Offensive Anti-Surface Weapon (OASuW).”
A Marinha dos Estados Unidos inaugurou o seu novo e futurístico destróier furtivo (stealth), chamado USS Zumwalt, cujo design tenta superar a estratégia chinesa de antiacesso/negação de área (A2/AD).
Capt. Kirk Takes Command Of The USS Zumwalt
The Diplomat – 02/11/2013 – por Ankit Panda
On Monday, the U.S. Navy launched its radically futuristic new stealth destroyer – the USS Zumwalt. The ship is captained by the aptly-named Capt. James Kirk, and the first Zumwalt-class destroyer in operation. The Navy expects to ultimately deploy up to three Zumwalt-class destroyers. While the Zumwalt is the U.S. Navy’s do-everything ship in many ways, it was designed with land attack in mind. Given that the Zumwalt‘s overt design attempts to overcome China’s much-touted anti-access/area-denial (A2/AD) strategy, the launch of the ship will be closely watched by the PLA Navy.
It’s considered to be a “next-generation” destroyer with a design that reduces its signature, and an incorporation of active and passive self-defense systems. It represents the culmination of over two decades of research and development. The Zumwalt in reality represents the very frontier of destroyers, and in actuality resembles a battleship in more ways than one. Most notably, its sheer size puts it at a few feet short of being classified as a battleship. The Zumwalt incorporates enough power to match its hefty size.
According to Navy Live, the U.S. Navy’s official blog, the Zumwalt incorporates an innovative power system:
“The ZUMWALT Class is the first combatant to introduce a Low Voltage Power System that features a highly survivable Integrated Fight Through Power (IFTP) system, which relies on new-to-the-Navy solid state Power Conversion Modules to achieve user-specific power demands. The IFTP architecture combines four electrically isolated zones (forward to aft) and two segregated longitudinal buses (port/starboard), with advanced Engineering Control System functionality that introduces single-operator control with unprecedented and reliable automated power management, fault isolation, and recovery features.”
The addition of the Zumwalt hones the U.S. Navy’s technical ability to make good on its Air-Sea Battle (ASB) strategy, including Joint Operational Access.
The ship’s next-generation offensive capabilities include expansion to incorporate rail gun and laser weapon technology. Experts credit the ship’s innovative power plant as enabling its offensive capabilities. Breaking Defense, in its coverage of the Zumwalt’s launch, brings attention to its additionally innovative approach to human systems integration. The Zumwalt also operates with a much smaller crew compared to other ships with its capabilities. Breaking Defense cites Scott Truver on the matter:
“When upwards of 70% of the total ownership cost (TOC) of an ship class is directly related to people, anything that can reduce manning — without diminishing warfighting-first and readiness capabilities, of course — will be major contributors to keeping TOCs in check. The DDG-1000 (Zumwalt) class is the first U.S. Navy warship to fully embrace the precepts of human systems integration in the design and engineering phase—when some 60 percent of a warships’ TOC (Total Operating Costs) are already locked in…. In short, lessons learned from Zumwalt have the potential to ripple throughout the service, generating a real revolution at sea!”
The development of the Zumwalt hasn’t been free of political controversy. In an era of tightening defense budgets and spending, the program came under fire from budget hawks in Congress who have found its return on investment value to be unsatisfactory.
But the ship also has its proponents on Capitol Hill. Rep. Randy Forbes (R-VA), chairman of the House Armed Services Seapower and Projection Forces Subcommittee and chairman of the Congressional China Caucus, has heralded the Zumwalt as precisely the sort of hardware the U.S. Navy needs to incorporate to ensure its dominance.