Este ano, o golpe na Indonésia que deu início a uma ditadura que matou, segundo estimativas, entre 500 mil e 2 milhões de pessoas completa 50 anos. Os principais alvos foram os comunistas do país. Em artigo publicado na revista The Diplomat (02/10), Nithin Coca critica a falta de memória em relação ao massacre dentre a população indonésia, tendo em conta que vários setores e membros do governo ainda são os mesmos da ditadura de Suharto. O autor ainda critica o papel ocidental, que apoiou o ditador pelo seu “anticomunismo”.
Decisão foi anunciada no dia 11 de setembro, aniversário de 41 anos do golpe de Estado de 1973, e é um marco do governo da socialista em matéria de direitos humanos. Com a mudança, a Lei de Anistia, promulgada pela ditadura de Augusto Pinochet em 1978 e que permitiu que os crimes cometidos entre 1973 e essa data ficassem impunes, será extinta.
“Países desenvolvidos querem a desintegração econômica do Mercosul”
Revista Fórum – 03/10/2012 – por Beto Almeida & Pedro Rafael Ferreira
Nessa entrevista exclusiva concedida ao Brasil de Fato, ele volta a atacar o modus operandi dos países centrais do capitalismo na relação com a América Latina. “Os EUA e os países altamente desenvolvidos têm tido, como meta geral de política econômica e diplomacia externa, a eliminação de todas as barreiras ao comércio e ao fluxo de capitais. Ao mesmo tempo, têm advogado a adoção de uma série de normas que impedem qualquer controle sobre o capital estrangeiro”. Contundência. É dessa forma que o diplomata Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães costuma se expressar sobre os temas que bem conhece. Secretário-geral de Relações Exteriores durante sete anos do governo Lula (2003-2009), ele foi uma das vozes mais eloquentes no processo que ajudou a enterrar a Aliança para o Livre Comércio das Américas (Alca) – iniciativa que buscava apagar todas as fronteiras comerciais do continente, num claro favorecimento à indústria norte-americana.
Dono de uma sólida formação acadêmica na área jurídica e sociológica, e quadro do Itamaraty há quase 50 anos, Guimarães exerceu até junho desse ano a função de Alto-Representante do Mercosul, sendo articulador das políticas entre os países-membros do bloco. Professor de Economia Internacional na Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), ele analisa com propriedade os atuais desafios sul-americanos, especialmente a mudança geopolítica após a entrada da Venezuela no grupo. “Esse ingresso vai proteger o país das tentativas de golpe”, aponta. Sobre o Brasil, o diplomata detecta um perigoso processo de desindustrialização da economia e uma hegemonia do capital internacional no controle dos fluxos de capitais. (mais…)
Egypt to Hold Presidential Election on May 23-24
RIA Novosti – 29/02/2012
Egypt will hold its presidential election on May 23-24, Farouk Sultan, the head of the county’s election commission, said on Wednesday.
Farouk, who is also the chairman of the Supreme Constitutional Court, said the second round of the election, if necessary, will be held on June 16-17 and the results will be announced on June 21.
The registration of the candidates starts on March 10 and the election campaigns begin on April 30 to last for 21 days, he added.
Last March Egyptians approved constitutional changes that will allow Egypt’s military rulers to move swiftly toward elections.
The changes ease requirements for independent candidates seeking the presidency, restore full judicial supervision for elections, limit the presidency to two four-year terms (currently, there is no limit), and stipulate a public referendum for any state of emergency that lasts longer than six months. (mais…)
Yemen elects new leader in walkover election
Russia Today – 22/02/2012
Following a year of turmoil Yemen has elected a new leader, Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi, who is officially replacing the outgoing President Saleh. However, the vote was far from democratic with Hadi being the only option on ballot papers.
Field Marshal Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi, Saleh’s close confidant, has served as the country’s vice president since 1994. He is now tasked with implementing the US and Gulf States-backed power transfer deal which was signed by Saleh in November.
Ali Abdullah Saleh, who ruled Yemen for 33 years, is the fourth autocrat to leave power after the Arab Spring uprising swept away the leaders of Tunisia, Egypt and Libya.
Hadi is set to be declared president in the coming days and will inherit an impoverished nation battered by political and economic problems, rebellions and separatism.
“This is a qualitative leap for modern Yemen,” Hadi said on Tuesday after casting his vote. “There will be big political, economic and social change, which is the way out of the crisis that has ravaged the country.” (mais…)
Up to 10,000 Myanmar refugees seek refuge in China
Reuters / Sui-Lee Wee – 07/02/2012
Thousands of refugees from fighting in remote northern Myanmar have flooded into makeshift tent cities erected on the other side of the long border with China, creating a humanitarian crisis and a complex diplomatic dilemma for Beijing.
Up to 10,000 refugees have fled to an area in southwestern Yunnan province, driven by fighting between Myanmar’s military and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), one of the country’s most powerful rebel groups, five aid groups told Reuters. Many of the refugees are women, children and elderly people.
Fighting erupted after a 17-year-old ceasefire broke down last June, sending ethnic Kachins fleeing to the border area.
The conflict could jeopardize the former Burma’s efforts to convince the European Union and the United States to lift wide-ranging sanctions against the country, which is slowing efforts to open up and democratize after decades of army rule.
The EU and the United States have made peace deals with ethnic militias one of the pre-requisites for lifting the sanctions. Some groups have fought the government since independence from Britain in 1947. (mais…)
Election preparations start in conflict-torn Yemen
Reuters / Mohammed Ghobari – 06/02/2012
SANAA, Feb 6 (Reuters) – Yemen has begun a publicity campaign to get citizens to vote in the upcoming presidential election, officials said on Monday, part of a deal to ease President Ali Abdullah Saleh out of office and pull the country back from the brink of civil war. Vice president Hadi is sole candidate in Feb. 21 vote.
With Vice President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi as the only candidate in the Feb. 21 vote, there are fears of a low turnout that would dent the legitimacy of the man expected to lead Yemen during a two-year interim period when crucial decisions, dealing with restructuring the armed forms and introducing constitutional reforms, are expected to be taken.
“Your vote protects Yemen,” read a giant poster hung in the capital Sanaa, depicting a smiling woman in a pink headscarf as she places her ballot into a voting box.
Abdul Wahhab al-Qudsi, head of the electoral commission’s external relations, said preparations for the vote were in full swing. “(Our) main committee has gone to different provinces and the subcommittee will go off this weekend,” he told Reuters.
It will be the first time in 33 years that a candidate other than Saleh — now in the United States for treatment of injuries sustained in an assassination attempt last year — will head the impoverished Arab state, located along key oil shipping routes. (mais…)
The limits of reform in Myanmar
Asia Times / Bertil Lintner – 17/01/2012
The release of more than 200 political prisoners and a tentative ceasefire with the rebel Karen National Union represent the latest of steps taken by Myanmar president Thein Sein’s government to improve its international image and assuage its many critics at home and abroad.
The cosmetic change in the traditionally military-run country is unmistakable. In recent months, it has become easier for ordinary citizens to access the Internet and local magazines and journals are able to publish articles on topics that would have been unthinkable only a year ago. Pictures of pro-democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi, who spent 15 of the past 21 years under house arrest, are now for sale in markets not only in the former capital Yangon but also in small upcountry towns.
The United States government, for more than two decades the fiercest critic of successive military-dominated regimes in Myanmar, promised enhanced engagement in exchange for “further reforms” immediately after Friday’s prison release. As a first step, the US is going to send an ambassador to its embassy in Yangon, which has been headed by a charge d’affaires since Washington decided to downgrade relations with Myanmar in 1990 in response to a brutal crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators.
Many Myanmar citizens undoubtedly welcome the easing of the extreme authoritarian pressure they have lived under as long as they can remember. But critics maintain the loosening is not tantamount to a “reform process”, which would require changes in the country’s fundamental power structure, and that the US may have other diplomatic objectives in mind over concerns for human rights and democracy. (mais…)
Syria’s Assad grants general amnesty ‘for uprising crimes’
Russia Today – 15/01/2012
President Bashar al-Assad has issued a decree granting general amnesty for crimes committed during the Syrian uprising which started in March 2011, the official government news agency SANA reported on Sunday.
The amnesty reportedly covers those who took part in peaceful demonstrations, carried unlicensed weapons and those who have handed their weapons over to authorities before the end of January, as well as army deserters who fled their military service, but turn themselves in before January 31.
It was not announced, however, how many prisoners would be affected by the initiative. Since the outbreak of the uprising against President Assad, he has freed 3,952 prisoners. Thousands more are still being kept in prisons, according to international human rights organizations.
The release of all arrested protesters has been one of the Syrian opposition’s main demands, which has also been set in the country’s crisis settlement plan proposed by the League of Arab States. Observers from this regional organization are currently working in Syria.
Figures cited by the United Nations state that more than 5,000 people have fallen victims to Assad’s crackdown during the nationwide protests. Syrian authorities, on the other hand, largely blame high death toll to armed gangs and say that 1,100 soldiers and police staff have been killed.
Meanwhile the Arab League said this week it would delay sending more monitors to Syria after the attack on an observer team. One of the league’s numerous observers has already quit the mission, describing it as a “farce”. (mais…)
Myanmar frees more political prisoners
Reuters / Aung Hla Tun – 12/01/2012
Myanmar freed at least 200 political prisoners on Friday in an amnesty that could embolden the opposition and put pressure on the West to lift sanctions as one of the world’s most reclusive states opens up after half a century of authoritarian rule.
Among those freed are long-persecuted democrats and ethnic leaders whose proven ability to organize and inspire could heap pressure on President Thein Sein to accelerate nascent reforms.
The United States and Europe have said freeing political prisoners is crucial to even considering lifting the economic sanctions that have isolated the former British colony, also known as Burma, and pushed it closer to China during five decades of often-brutal military rule that ended last March.
“The release of all political prisoners is a longstanding demand of the international community and I warmly welcome these releases as a further demonstration of the Burmese government’s commitment to reform,” British Foreign Secretary William Hague said in a statement.
As big as France and Britain combined, Myanmar lies between India, China and Southeast Asia with ports on the Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea, all of which make it an energy security asset for Beijing’s landlocked western provinces and a U.S. priority as President Barack Obama strengthens engagement with Asia. (mais…)
Egyptian prosecutors demand death sentence for Mubarak
RIA Novosti – 05/01/2012
Egypt’s Prosecutors General’s Office demanded on Thursday a death sentence for the Egyptian ex-president, Hosni Mubarak, the country’s former interior minister and six other defendants, Egyptian state news agency, MENA reported.
The hearings against the ousted Egyptian leader resumed on January 2.
Mustafa Khater, one of the prosecutors, told the court session that “the prosecution demands the maximum penalty against Mubarak and the rest of the accused which is death by hanging.”
Mubarak as well as Egyptian former interior minister, Habib El-Adly and a group of former country’s authorities are charged with ordering to shoot at peaceful protesters during the public unrest in January, 2011. Over 850 people had been killed in the clashes. (mais…)
Clashes renew at Egypt’s Tahrir Square; 24 dead in three days
NDTV News – 21/11/2011
Cairo: Security forces fired tear gas and clashed on Monday with several thousand protesters in Cairo’s Tahrir Square in the third straight day of violence that has killed at least 24 people and has turned into the most sustained challenge yet to the rule of Egypt’s military.
Throughout the day, young activists demanding the military hand over power to a civilian government skirmished with black-clad police, hurling stones and firebombs and throwing back the tear gas canisters being fired by police into the square, which was the epicenter of the protest movement that ousted President Hosni Mubarak in February.
The night before saw an escalation of the fighting as police launched a heavy assault that tried and failed to clear protesters from the square. In a show of the ferocity of the assault, the death toll leaped from Sunday evening until Monday morning. A constant stream of injured protesters – bloodied from rubber bullets or overcome by gas – were brought into makeshift clinics set out on sidewalks around the square where volunteer doctors scrambled from patient to patient.
The eruption of violence, which began Saturday, reflects the frustration and confusion that has mired Egypt’s revolution since Mubarak fell and the military stepped in to take power. (mais…)
Dilma sanciona lei que cria Comissão da Verdade e a que dá acesso a informações públicas
Correio do Brasil – 18/11/2011
A presidenta Dilma Rousseff sancionou nesta sexta-feira a lei que cria a Comissão da Verdade para apurar violações aos direitos humanos ocorridas entre 1946 e 1988, período que inclui a ditadura militar. Dilma sancionou também a Lei de Acesso a Informações Públicas, que acaba com o sigilo eterno de documentos.
Para o ministro da Justiça, José Eduardo Cardozo, a informação não deve ser de poder de quem governa, mas de toda a sociedade. “A questão dos direitos humanos é chave e, portanto, a lei [de Acesso a Informações Públicas] foi clara. Nesse segmento não há restrições de informação.”
A Comissão da Verdade será formada por sete pessoas, escolhidas pela presidenta da República a partir de critérios como conduta ética e atuação em defesa dos direitos humanos. Ao todo, 14 servidores darão suporte administrativo aos trabalhos. (mais…)
In Slap at Syria, Turkey Shelters Anti-Assad Fighters
The New York Times / Liam Stack – 27/10/2011
ANTAKYA, Turkey — Once one of Syria’s closest allies, Turkey is hosting an armed opposition group waging an insurgency against the government of President Bashar al-Assad, providing shelter to the commander and dozens of members of the group, the Free Syrian Army, and allowing them to orchestrate attacks across the border from inside a camp guarded by the Turkish military.
The support for the insurgents comes amid a broader Turkish campaign to undermine Mr. Assad’s government. Turkey is expected to impose sanctions soon on Syria, and it has deepened its support for an umbrella political opposition group known as the Syrian National Council, which announced its formation in Istanbul. But its harboring of leaders in the Free Syrian Army, a militia composed of defectors from the Syrian armed forces, may be its most striking challenge so far to Damascus.
On Wednesday, the group, living in a heavily guarded refugee camp in Turkey, claimed responsibility for killing nine Syrian soldiers, including one uniformed officer, in an attack in restive central Syria.
Turkish officials describe their relationship with the group’s commander, Col. Riad al-As’aad, and the 60 to 70 members living in the “officers’ camp” as purely humanitarian. Turkey’s primary concern, the officials said, is for the physical safety of defectors. When asked specifically about allowing the group to organize military operations while under the protection of Turkey, a Foreign Ministry official said that their only concern was humanitarian protection and that they could not stop them from expressing their views. (mais…)
Libya and Iraq: The price of Success
Stratfor / George Friedman – 25/10/2011
In a week when the European crisis continued building, the White House chose publicly to focus on announcements about the end of wars. The death of Moammar Gadhafi was said to mark the end of the war in Libya, and excitement about a new democratic Libya abounded. Regarding Iraq, the White House transformed the refusal of the Iraqi government to permit U.S. troops to remain into a decision by Washington instead of an Iraqi rebuff.
Though in both cases there was an identical sense of “mission accomplished,” the matter was not nearly as clear-cut. The withdrawal from Iraq creates enormous strategic complexities rather than closure. While the complexities in Libya are real but hardly strategic, the two events share certain characteristics and are instructive.
The Man Who Knew Too Much
Foreign Policy / David Rieff – 24/10/2011
Libyans may be celebrating the killing of Muammar al-Qaddafi, but you’d better believe that Western governments are breathing a sigh of relief themselves.
Whether the NATO countries — who had only a few years ago welcomed Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi back into the international fold in exchange for his renouncing his chemical and nuclear weapons programs and allowing U.S. and British experts to come and help dismantle them — played any role in what certainly appeared in first reports from the scene to have been the summary execution of the Libyan dictator will probably never be known. What the video evidence does prove is that the Libyan revolutionary forces did not find him already dead or killed by a NATO airstrike; nor does the initial claim that he was killed in “crossfire” between insurgent forces and diehard regime loyalists stand up to even the most minimal scrutiny.
NATO does acknowledge that its planes bombarded the convoy in which Qaddafi was fleeing the city of Sirte shortly before it was intercepted on the ground by the insurgents, but it has denied it even knew he was there. If that is true, and the French, British, and Americans did not try to make their own luck, then they certainly were very lucky indeed. (mais…)