Nesta quinta-feira (30/06), o secretário de Defesa dos EUA, Ashton Carter, anunciou que pessoas abertamente transgênero poderão se alistar e servir nas Forças Armadas estadunidenses, removendo uma proibição que até hoje excluía pessoas trans do serviço militar no país. Além disso, em uma medida sem precedentes, foi criado um programa para que os militares que queiram fazer a transição de gênero possam desenvolvê-la dentro das Forças Armadas. Até então, pessoas que declaravam sua condição de transgênero eram expulsas pelo Pentágono.
Confira aqui a monografia da pesquisadora do ISAPE, Laís Helena Andreis Trizotto, sobre as semelhanças entre a experiência militar israelense e o proposto na doutrina da Batalha Aeroterrestre (ALB, de Air-Land Battle). O trabalho é um estudo prospectivo de averiguação da experiência dos Estados Unidos com a ALB, no caso a Guerra do Golfo (1991), em comparação com experiências de Israel na Guerra do Yom Kippur, de 1973, e na Guerra do Líbano, de 1982. Mostra-se que a experiência militar de Israel em 1973 se aproximou dos marcos gerais do debate doutrinário acerca da ALB nos EUA.
Nesta segunda-feira (25/04), o presidente dos Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, anunciou o envio de mais 250 militares para a Síria. As novas tropas, que incluem soldados das Forças Especiais, têm como objetivo auxiliar forças locais no combate ao grupo “Estado Islâmico” (EI). Atualmente os EUA possuem 50 soldados no país. Obama também pediu uma maior participação da Europa e de outros aliados no combate ao EI.
O secretário de Defesa dos Estados Unidos, Ashton Carter, anunciou na última sexta-feira (18/03) que uma mulher assumirá pela primeira vez um grande comando militar do país. Lori Robinson, general da Força Aérea, foi indicada pelo presidente Barack Obama para dirigir o NORTHCOM, comando militar dos EUA para a América do Norte.
Uma força multinacional iniciou uma série de operações para retomar a cidade iraquiana de Mosul do grupo “Estado Islâmico” (EI). Segundo o anúncio feito nesta segunda-feira (29/02), ataques aéreos, terrestres e cibernéticos estão sendo realizados para isolar a cidade, considerada a capital do EI. Além da presença de suas Forças Especiais, os EUA participam com assessores militares e atividades logísticas.
Pela primeira vez, os Estados Unidos deverão ter um homossexual assumido comandando o seu Exército. Na sexta-feira (18/09), o Presidente Barack Obama nomeou Eric Fanning para o posto de secretário do Exército dos EUA. Nome ainda precisa ser aprovado pelo Senado. Se aprovado, ele será o primeiro gay que assumiu abertamente sua sexualidade a chefiar uma das Forças Armadas do país.
Nos Estados Unidos, oficiais de alto escalão do Pentágono estão em fase de encerramento dos estudos que podem tornar todos os postos de combate disponíveis também para mulheres. A avaliação, que poderá abrir mais de 300 mil cargos nas forças armadas do país, já dura mais de dois anos e 2015 é seu prazo final. O exército e os fuzileiros navais do país já estão incorporando mulheres nos seus programas de treinamento de combate mesmo antes da decisão final ser tomada.
Nesta quinta-feira (09/04), o Exército dos EUA receberá sua primeira peça de artilharia em vinte anos. O M109A7 é uma unidade de artilharia autopropulsada que utiliza projéteis de 155mm. A aquisição revela um novo comportamento do gasto estadunidense, que está trocando modelos completamente novos e muito caros por versões atualizadas de modelos já existentes. Assim, o M109A7 é baseado no M109, peça de artilharia desenvolvida na década de 1960. O M109A7 pode disparar quatro tiros por minuto num alcance de 40 km.
Enquanto os Estados Unidos preparam planos para diminuir as suas forças armadas, a marinha do país deve cortar pela metade o pedido de caças F-35 de quinta geração. Esperava-se que o pedido fosse de 69 caças, mas deverão ser encomendados apenas 36.
O orçamento do Departamento de Defesa dos EUA para os próximos cinco anos planeja reestruturar o Exército do país, reduzindo-o ao tamanho que tinha em 1940 antes da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Assim, os EUA querem fechar o capítulo das guerras baseadas em um modelo de intervenção que supunha “longas operações de estabilização”.
Relatório diz que a Marinha e a Força Aérea dos Estados Unidos vão gastar cerca de 525 bilhões de dólares com a aquisição de capacidades para implementar a batalha aeronaval (Air-Sea Battle, ASB) na próxima década. Quantia é maior do que a modernização dos armamentos nucleares do país.
Conheça os projetos de mísseis inteligentes de 2030, supervelozes e capazes de interferir/bloquear radares, que devem mudar o modo que as Forças Armadas dos Estados Unidos realizam operações militares.
Meet the Super-Fast, Radar-Jamming, Unnervingly Intelligent Missiles of 2030
Foreign Policy – 15/11/2013 – por Zach Rosenberg
In the past few weeks, the Pentagon and its major contractors have been trotting out their designs for the aircraft of the future — from a stealthy, hypersonic spy plane to a combat, carrier-hopping drone to a futuristic bomber. But ironically, none of these planes will likely define the U.S. armed forces of, say, 2030. It’s the wild weapons they’ll carry that could be military game-changers.
The crown jewel is the Long Range Strike-Bomber (LRS-B), being designed under tight secrecy. LRS-B is supposed to replace either the B-52 or B-1 or some combination thereof (nobody’s quite sure yet). Designed for penetrating strike and nuclear weapons, it is this bomber that is meant to lead any bombing campaign, slipping into enemy airspace undetected and dropping bombs on the most heavily-defended targets. Northrop Grumman (which designed the B-2) and a Boeing-Lockheed team are both designing competitors, but details are scarce — nearly everything about the program is classified.
The F-35, currently under production, is supposed to become the backbone of the USAF fleet. By 2030 the oldest operational aircraft will have a decade in service, and new versions might still be rolling out of the factory. It’s designed to be the new catch-all, a performer of all but master of none. But as the most modern aircraft on the production line it can do things its predecessors can’t, and it shows how the USAF is changing the way it fights.
The F-35 is stealthy, but it’s not that stealthy. It won’t be able to dip into enemy airspace unnoticed like the LRS-B will, so the focus is how to make it more effective from further away. The radar is designed to share detailed targeting information via datalink with other aircraft — one F-35 can hang back and turn on its radar, which gives its position away to the target but keeps it far from danger, while another can sneak in and fire a missile without giving itself away.
More and more, those missiles are going to be smarter and capable of new things, not just blowing things up. Rather than risk people and valuable airplanes, why not just let the missile do the work? It’s getting easier to pack missiles full of fuel and electronics, making them more like miniature drones than the old dumb-bombs. Some missiles, like Raytheon’s new MALD-J, contain small radar jammers and can be fired almost 600 miles from the target.
Future versions could have electronic surveillance equipment, sending data back home, or even the means to inject viruses into computer networks. Also look forward to things like the Israeli IAI Harop, a hybrid missile/UAV that can circle overhead for long periods of time, waiting for a whiff of electronic scent and guiding itself in.
One promising development is the High-Speed Strike Weapon, a hypersonic ground attack missile, capable of launching from thousands of miles away and streaking towards the target too fast for anyone to hit. At least, that’s the idea. At that speed it might not even need a warhead, destroying targets with sheer kinetic energy. The program is in its infancy, and sustained hypersonic flight is very tough — but we’ll see. Come 2030 there could be B-52s — among the oldest aircraft in the inventory — launching hypersonic cruise missiles by the dozen.
And what of the drones used so widely today? After Afghanistan winds down there will certainly not be a need for as many as we now have. But a potential Predator replacement, the MQ-X, is dead in the water, and while the USAF is closely watching the Navy’s experiments with the X-47B carrier-hopping drone, there are no concrete plans to buy anything at the moment. But it’s hard to imagine they wouldn’t put those new capabilities onto UAVs, and indeed there are persistent rumors of secret bomb-carrying UAVs flying in the desert, but nothing concrete and verifiable has yet emerged.
All of those are good ideas, but the potential costs are enormous, and in the days of sequestration few people have the stomach to promote gigantic programs. Even next year’s budgets are uncertain, and between the Pentagon’s five-year planning frames and the regular shifts of their political sponsors, nobody really knows what programs will make it to 2030. It could be all of them. It could be just one. We’ll have to wait and see.
O Comando dos EUA para a África (AFRICOM) pode sofrer corte orçamentário de 10% para o ano que vem, mesmo que tenha sido exitoso em suas operações no Mali e na Somália.
U.S. military faces Africa cuts, sees Somalia, Mali successes
Reuters – 14/11/2013 – por Peter Apps
U.S. military forces in Africa may lose well over a tenth – or some $40 million – from their 2014 budget, the U.S. Africa Command said on Thursday, although it saw success against militants in Somalia and Mali.
The bulk of such cuts will fall on headquarters and training programs, AFRICOM commander General David Rodriguez said, most likely forcing smaller exercises.
The size of AFRICOM headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany, is to be reduced by some 20 percent.
The planned cuts are part of broader across-the-board U.S. spending restrictions dubbed “sequestration” and imposed after Congress failed to agree deficit reduction measures.
AFRICOM – set up in 2007 to coordinate U.S. military activity on the continent – retains some 5,000 troops in Africa at any time, primarily in Djibouti. Much of their focus is on building local military capability and training forces for missions such as the African Union mission AMISOM in Somalia and its U.N. counterpart in Mali.
“The budget is going to be reduced … although I would expect that the number of places where we have exercises will remain approximately the same,” Rodriguez told a press briefing in London.
“We’ve had to reduce the size of some of these exercises and change the nature of some … to involve fewer troops.”
After the September 2012 attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya, however, Rodriguez said AFRICOM and the State Department had stepped up security at some embassies and improved its information sharing and emergency protocols.
Rodriguez said he believed AMISOM had begun to push back Islamist al Shabaab militants in Somalia and that U.N. forces in Mali had significantly disrupted al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).
Analysts say French and Chadian troops did much of the work in curbing AQIM before the mission became part of a U.N. peacekeeping force in June, and operations now still primarily involve French and Malian troops.
Rodriguez said the just over 100 special forces operators supporting regional militaries in the hunt for Ugandan former Lord’s Resistance Army chief Joseph Kony had also markedly reduced LRA operations, even if Kony himself remained elusive.
OCCASIONAL DIRECT ACTION IN SOMALIA
Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea remained a serious worry, Rodriguez said, with U.S. forces working to train local navies and coastguards. AFRICOM was also working on training and information-sharing with Nigeria’s military as it battles a growing insurgency by Islamist group Boko Haram.
Despite rumors to the contrary, however, he said Washington had no plans to deploy troops or drones in Nigeria despite listing Boko Haram as a banned terror group.
The United States will continue to take its own occasional direct action in Somalia, he said. Although it rarely comments on specifics, Washington has been widely suspected of being behind several drone strikes on al Qaeda and al Shabaab.
In October, U.S. special forces carried out an unsuccessful raid on an al Shabaab leader dubbed “Ikrinna” and suspected of plotting a host of attacks on Western and other targets.
It was not clear whether or not he was involved in the attack the previous month on Nairobi’s Westgate shopping mall that killed 67 and was claimed by the Somali group.
“The effort in Somalia has dislocated al Shabaab,” Rodriguez said, adding that the group had been pushed from the capital Mogadishu in some other areas.
“AMISOM have to keep the pressure up – and that’s just the military picture. A model of things have to be done as well.” That included making Somalia’s transitional government more effective, he said.
In Mali, where Washington has also provided airlift and intelligence to French, U.N. and Malian troops, Rodriguez said AQIM fighters had been dispersed and less effective, even though their overall numbers had likely not fallen.
Despite an upsurge in fighting between Mozambique’s government and the RENAMO opposition, Rodriguez said AFRICOM had no plans to increase support to the Mozambican military.
A empresa Lockheed Martin testou pela segunda vez com êxito um novo míssil antinavio furtivo (stealth) de longo alcance desenvolvido para a Marinha e a Força Aérea dos EUA, cujo projeto tenta superar a estratégia chinesa de antiacesso/negação de área (A2/AD).
US Tests New Stealthy Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile
The Diplomat – 15/11/2013 – por Zachary Keck
Lockheed Martin conducted the second successful test of the new Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) it is developing for the U.S. Navy and Air Force. The missile will be crucial in the U.S. military’s efforts to defeat Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) strategies, including China’s in the Asia-Pacific.
According to a press release published on Thursday, a U.S. Air Force B-1B bomber carrying the LRASM flew from Dyess Air Force Base in Texas to the Sea Range at Point Mugu, California where it “released the LRASM, which navigated through all planned waypoints receiving in-flight targeting updates from the Weapon Data Link. After transitioning to autonomous guidance, LRASM identified the target using inputs from the onboard sensors. The missile then descended for final approach, verified and impacted the target.”
The LRASM is a DARPA and U.S. Navy-funded program meant to provide the Navy and U.S. Air Force with an offensive anti-surface weapon (OASuW) to counter the growing threats from Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) doctrines. It is one of the major alternatives for the OASuW that is being considered.
The press release described LRASM as a “LRASM is an autonomous, precision-guided anti-ship standoff missile.” Previously, Lockheed Martin has said of the missile: “The long range capability of LRASM will enable target engagement from well outside the range of direct counter-fire weapons. LRASM will also employ active and passive survivability features to penetrate advanced integrated air defense systems. The combination of range, survivability, and lethality ensures mission success.”
In light of the proliferation of cyber capabilities, Lockheed has placed a special premium on reducing the missile’s “dependence on ISR platforms, network links, and GPS navigation” in order to allow it to survive in “aggressive electronic warfare environments.” To that end, the LRASM “employs a multi-mode sensor, weapon data link and an enhanced digital anti-jam global positioning system to detect and destroy specific targets within a group of ships.”
It will have air and surface-launched capability, travel at subsonic speeds, and carry a 1,000-pound penetrator and blast-fragmentation warhead.
Lockheed boasted in the press release that the LRASM leverages “a significant number of parts and assembly-process synergies” from its Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile Extended Range (JASSM-ER) program. The LSRAM and the JASSM-ER are made on the same production line.
In 2009, Lockheed’s LRASM-A and the LRASM-B variants won a DARPA competition to fund what it hoped would be the U.S. Navy’s new air-and-sea launched long-range anti-surface missiles. Based on their success in Phase 1, in 2010 DARPA green lighted Phase-2 development of both the LRASM variants, although it later axed the LRASM-B, which was technically much more complicated, at least for the time being.
However, Lockheed used the cancellation of LRASM-B to begin investing independently of DARPA in a LRASM-A that can launched from its MK 41 Vertical Launching System. In September, Lockheed conducted a private test of the MK41 VLS’s ability to launch a LRASM Boosted Test Vehicle (BTV). It succeeded.
Under the DARPA contract, three air-launched tests of the LRASM are scheduled for 2013. The first air-launched test of the LRASM was announced by the company in early September. It was also successful. Next year the company is expected to conduct two ship-based tests of the missile.
The successes come at a critical time as the U.S. Navy’s long-range and anti-ship capabilities have waned. Rep. Randy Forbes (R-VA) warned about this in a wide-ranging and engaging interview with Real Clear Defense that was published this week.
“We are technically ‘out-sticked’ by Chinese anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCM) right now,” Forbes said when asked the capabilities by RCD’s Editor-in-Chief Dustin Walker. “The Navy’s own ASCM, the Harpoon, is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system. Sounds technical, but in fact it was designed in the 1970s and now does not have the range or survivability to operate against more sophisticated anti-surface threats we are seeing from the Chinese PLA Navy today…. My subcommittee is now playing a leading role in reviewing the range of options for a new Offensive Anti-Surface Weapon (OASuW).”
A empresa Lockheed Martin revelou planos de construir um drone hipersônico (Mach 6) para espionagem e potencialmente armado. Segundo os planos, a tecnologia pode ser testada já em 2018.
This Stealthy, Hypersonic Drone Could Be The Most Insane Plane Ever Built
Foreign Policy – 01/11/2013 – por John Reed
Lockheed Martin revealed a planned successor to the legendary SR-71 Blackbird. Except this SR-72 will be a drone, will fly nearly twice as fast as the Blackbird and be capable of carrying weapons. And that will make it the most exotic airplane ever constructed.
If it gets constructed, that is. According to Aviation Week’s Guy Norris, the detailed design has been ongoing for years in cooperation with engine builder Aerojet Rocketdyne, but whether it actually gets built is still up in the air.
Hypersonic demonstrators to date have all been powered to speed by rocket boosters, including the same massive rockets used to launch satellites into space. The new design is closely based on the canceled HTV-3X Blackswift, an ambitious proposal to build a plane capable of taking off from a regular runway like a regular aircraft, accelerate to speed and stay there, then land as normal. It’s harder than it sounds, and though Lockheed says it has solved one of the trickier problems – transitioning the engine from slow to supersonic to hypersonic flight – the company declines to say how. Other issues, including dealing with the considerable heat generated at hypersonic speeds, are still up in the air. Lockheed says a smaller, single-engine, optionally-manned demonstrator aircraft would precede building the SR-72.
Hypersonic flight is so difficult that all of humanity’s accumulated hypersonic flight time is measured in minutes. It is so unique that each new attempt, including those that fail, is considered a successful experiment. The SR-71 flew at high supersonic speeds, which required several strokes of engineering genius.
The Blackbird was fast, with an official speed around Mach 3.2 and an unofficial speed a bit higher, and moderately stealthy, but still slow and detectable enough that if seen at long range there was time to move mobile objects under cover. Lockheed is betting that the SR-72’s Mach 6 will simply be too fast to react.
The new aircraft will be capable of flying Mach 6 by essentially fusing two propulsion systems into one. It will have two regular jet engines, which compress air, inject fuel and push the mixture out the back to create thrust, but those stop working at a certain speed. To go faster requires a supersonic-combustion ramjet (scramjet), where essentially the air is moving fast enough to compress itself through a carefully-designed inlet before igniting fuel and pushing it out the back.
The SR-71 and its A-12 forbearer were among the most iconic and exotic aircraft in existence. Built in secrecy in the 1960s for the Central Intelligence Agency and flight tested at Groom Lake, Nevada (the infamous ‘Area 51′), the Blackbird was used for secret strategic reconnaissance, succeeding the high-flying but slow U-2. The SR-71 took pictures over such hostile targets as the Soviet Union, China and North Vietnam amongst others during its long career, but it was extremely expensive. The program was ended first in 1990 but returned shortly thereafter, finally making its last flight in 1998.
The public line is that increasingly capable satellites made the SR-71 obsolete, but satellites move in predictable orbits. Even a series of secret stealth satellites (canceled after considerable budget overruns) would be limited. Rumors of a secret SR-71 replacement are persistent – the supposed ‘Aurora’ program — but no verifiable evidence has emerged. That means if the SR-72 gets built, it will be the top dog, the wildest airplane ever made.