Documentos confidenciais tornados públicos pelo Greenpeace nesta segunda-feira (02/05) revelaram que os Estados Unidos pressionaram a União Europeia (UE) a aprovar a Parceria Transatlântica de Comércio e Investimento (TTIP). Com base nos documentos, a imprensa alemã nota que Washington ameaçou barrar os esforços para facilitar a exportação de automóveis europeus para os EUA. O objetivo seria forçar a UE a consumir produtos agrícolas americanos, considerados de maior risco ambiental. Além disso, os documentos mostram ainda que os EUA estariam tentando vetar a exigência da UE de que os painéis de arbitragem corporativos sejam públicos, e não sigilosos, como querem os estadunidenses.
Fracassaram as mais recentes negociações acerca da Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP, sigla em inglês) — um acordo de livre comércio que envolve Ásia e Américas — que ocorreram em Honolulu, Estados Unidos, na semana passada. A rodada de negociação foi interrompida após quatro dias de conversas sem que houvesse um acordo final e tampouco marcou-se a data da próxima. O governo estadunidense esperava concluir o acordo o quanto antes para usufruir da Fast Track Authority que lhe foi conferida pelo Congresso. Porém, questiona-se a viabilidade de aprovação da TPP ainda durante o mandato de Barack Obama, que se encerra no início de 2017.
Negociado em segredo, o acordo de livre comércio da Parceria Transatlântica de Investimento e Comércio (TTIP, em inglês) entre os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia tem gerado muitas preocupações na Alemanha. Transgênicos, frango desinfetado com cloro, carne com hormônios: cidadãos temem rebaixamento de padrões ambientais e de qualidade, além de reclamar da falta de transparência.
Negociações do acordo de livre comércio da Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP) entre representantes do Japão e dos Estados Unidos permanecem em impasse. Principais pontos de controvérsia são a liberalização de indústria automobilística, carnes e arroz. Ainda assim, as diferenças parecem estar diminuindo gradualmente.
Negociações do acordo de livre comércio da Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP) entre representantes do Japão e dos Estados Unidos terminaram em impasse na última quinta-feira (10/04) em Tóquio. Principais pontos de controvérsia são a liberalização de indústria automobilística, carnes e arroz.
Ministros dos 12 países que negociam o acordo de livre comércio da Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP) disseram que ainda há muitas divergências quanto a tarifas e matérias de acesso a mercados. Acordo parece ficar cada vez mais distante.
Negociado em segredo, o acordo de livre comércio da Parceria Transatlântica de Investimento e Comércio (TTIP, em inglês) entre os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia permitiria às multinacionais processar qualquer Estado que não siga as normas do liberalismo.
Gordon Lafer chama atenção para as implicações antidemocráticas da Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP, sigla em inglês). Negociações são conduzidas a portas fechadas e lobby de empresas multinacionais tenta alterar regulamentações que já são rígidas nas leis nacionais de cada um dos países. Além disso, após o TPP entrar em vigor, por exemplo, empresas poderiam processar Estados-membros em tribunal internacional de instância única quando estes adotassem medidas trabalhistas ou ambientais mais rigorosas.
Governo Obama enfrenta resistências de diversos países nas negociações da área de livre comércio da Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP), especialmente em se tratando de proteções ambientais. Por isso, parece que está havendo um recuo dos EUA nas exigências de forte proteção ambiental – tudo para que a TPP se concretize rapidamente.
Além de resistências apresentadas por países que negociam a área de livre comércio da Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP), o governo Obama enfrenta forte oposição interna em sua própria base no Congresso. Governo dos EUA talvez tenha de contar com a oposição, o Partido Republicano, para aprovar o acordo.
Os Estados Unidos e outros 11 países anunciaram que não conseguirão terminar o acordo para a Parceria Trans-Pacífico (TPP) até o fim do ano.
No Pacific Rim Accord by End-of-Year Target, Trade Negotiators Say
The New York Times – 10/12/2013 – por Annie Lowrey
The United States and 11 other Pacific Rim nations said they would not complete a sweeping deal to reduce trade barriers by their own end-of-year deadline.
But participants in the latest talks, held in Singapore, expressed optimism about the prospects for the trade deal, one of the largest ever negotiated. The 12 ministers working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership said they had found potential “landing zones” for many of the remaining disagreements, which involve intellectual property and agricultural products, among other issues.
A strong deal “is critical for creating jobs and promoting growth, providing opportunity for our citizens and contributing to regional integration and the strengthening of the multilateral trading system,” the ministers said on Tuesday in a statement. “We have decided to continue our intensive work.”
Speaking with reporters after the Singapore talks, Michael B. Froman, the United States trade representative, said that the meeting had ended with “great momentum.”
He added, “We’re now focused on building that momentum with the direction given by the ministers on the landing zones.”
No formal deadline has been set for the Pacific Rim trade deal. Ministers involved in negotiations said they intended to continue talks into next year.
As the negotiators try to complete a deal, its supporters and opponents in Washington are waging intense lobbying campaigns. Much of the opposition comes from consumer, environmental and labor groups who argue that the deal might end up gutting American regulations, giving corporations too much power and moving jobs offshore.
“We’re tired of losing jobs,” said Leo W. Gerard, the president of the United Steelworkers union, in a call with reporters. “We’re tired of trade agreements that end up with net job loss. Our members our fed up with this. The public is fed up with this.”
Mr. Gerard said: “The politicians keep telling us the same song and dance that turns out not to be the truth. We’ve lost five million manufacturing jobs. The public gets it, and the politicians don’t.”
Some members of Congress have also expressed skepticism about such an agreement. The failure to complete the deal in Singapore “makes clear the administration is far from reaching an agreement with other countries,” Representative Rosa L. DeLauro, a Connecticut Democrat, told reporters. “It is far from reaching a deal that the Congress can support.”
But many businesses and business lobbying groups have pushed hard for an agreement, arguing it would open markets and create American jobs. “America’s business leaders commend this significant progress and urge the expeditious conclusion of an ambitious and comprehensive T.P.P. agreement, which will help create economic opportunities with the dynamic Asia-Pacific region and support U.S. growth and jobs,” said John Engler, president of the Business Roundtable.
In public and in private conversations, officials involved in the Trans-Pacific Partnership talks have maintained optimism that a deal might come to fruition, and emphasized their intention to see it through. But a document published this week by WikiLeaks indicates that there might be more rifts behind the scenes than they have let on, showing many areas of disagreement as of November.
One passage details complaints about an American provision on investor-state dispute settlements, for instance. “The United States, as in previous rounds, has shown no flexibility on its proposal, being one of the most significant barriers to closing the chapter, since under the concept of Investment Agreement nearly all significant contracts that can be made between a state and a foreign investor are included,” the document said.
A spokeswoman for the United States trade representative, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, said that the documents contained outdated and inaccurate information.
“I haven’t seen the leaks,” Mr. Froman said in an interview with CNBC. “All I can say is we’ve been working very collegially.”
Nevertheless, the documents gave new fuel to the trade deal’s opponents. “The negotiators’ political imperative to make a deal — any deal — resulted in a raft of dangerous decisions that would severely threaten consumers’ access to affordable medicines, undermine Internet freedom and empower corporations to attack our domestic laws,” said Lori Wallach, the director of Public Citizen’s Global Trade Watch.
The trade deal has equally ardent supporters in the White House and elsewhere in Washington, many of whom said they did not see the delay in Singapore as a sign of failure.
“The significant progress made in Singapore by T.P.P. ministers is welcome news for our nation’s farmers, ranchers, workers and families who stand to gain from the growth and opportunity a successful Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement will bring to America,” said Senator Max Baucus, a Montana Democrat. “Above all, our negotiators have shown they are committed to an ambitious and comprehensive outcome. I look forward to their delivering on that commitment.”
The trade pact faces one challenge from Congress before it is even completed. Legislators are debating whether to give the Obama administration fast-track authority, which many trade watchers consider a prerequisite for a deal’s eventual passage. Such authority would prevent the deal from being subject to a filibuster or amendment in Congress.
But Congressional Republicans and Democrats have indicated that they might oppose such authority, and aides said it would not come up for a vote this year.
The announcement about the Singapore talks was made only days after the member countries of the World Trade Organization made their first- multilateral agreement in the group’s two-decade history.
The agreement, in essence, facilitates trade by reducing red tape. Business groups have widely applauded it.
The Pacific talks would reduce barriers to trade. The deal would cover a huge swath of the globe, nearly a billion people from New Zealand north through Asia, through Canada and the United States and down through Mexico to Chile. Other countries involved include Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Vietnam and Peru.
The United States is also at work with a sweeping trade deal with the European Union.
Taiwan não teria pedido para aderir à TPP (Parceria Trans-Pacífico), cujas negociações devem terminar no final deste ano.
Taiwan has not asked to join TPP: US forum told
Taipei Times – 07/12/2013 – por Shih Hsiu-chuan
A US academic from the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) told a forum on Thursday that Taiwan has not requested membership of the emerging Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), negotiations of which are expected to be concluded by the end of this year.
“It’s just chronologically Taiwan has not requested [TPP] membership,” CSIS adviser Scott Miller said in response to a question about what objections there were to including Taiwan in TPP during a question-and-answer session at the forum.
CSIS organized the event with US Congressmen Charles Boustany of Louisiana and David Reichert of Washington to discuss what the TPP will mean for the US economy, and the US Congress’ priorities as the negotiations progress.
Boustany said he agreed with Miller because his understanding was also that Taiwan has not made a request to be a party to the TPP at this point.
Not long after President Ma Ying-jeou (馬英九) started his second term last year, he said that Taiwan would try to join the TPP within eight years.
“There is always an issue of readiness,” Miller told the audience in answer to the question. “As New Zealand Trade Minister Tim Groser once said: TPP has a dress code and you got to be ready and willing to [comply with the] dress code [policy] to be part of the agreement… So the high standard is a factor, but to this point, it’s just chronologically Taiwan has not requested membership.”
The TPP process requires all 12 existing parties to agree to the addition of a new member and the US is just one of them, Miller said.
After the forum, when asked if the US would be willing to incorporate Taiwan into TPP after it meets the high standards, even if China opposes it, Boustany said that politics always play a part, but the US wants to establish trade deals with every nation and rules for a global trading system.
“If Taiwan expresses its interests, we will see how it goes. Our goal is to expand [markets] in Asia, with all potential agreements including Taiwan, China, anybody who wants to join, but they have to meet the trade standards,” Boustany said.
State Duma Approves Liberal Political Reforms
RIA Novosti – 28/02/2012
The lower chamber of the Russian parliament, the State Duma, approved on Tuesday in the first reading the sweeping political reforms proposed by President Dmitry Medvedev.
The State Duma deputies voted 424-2 for a bill reintroducing direct elections of governors, scrapped by then-President Vladimir Putin in 2004. The bill allows both independent candidates and those represented by the parties to run for governor post.
The Duma also approved a bill simplifying procedures for registering political parties and reducing the number of signatures required by non-parliamentary parties and independent candidates to participate in elections.
According to the new bill, which would come into force on January 1, 2013, the minimal required number of party members is reduced to 500 from 40,000.
The second reading will take place no earlier than in a month, in accordance with procedural rules. Non-parliamentary parties have so far not applied to take part in that debate, State Duma Speaker Sergei Naryshkin said. (mais…)