Nesta segunda-feira (01/08), os Estados Unidos voltaram a bombardear o território da Líbia visando regiões sob controle do “Estado Islâmico”. Segundo informações do Pentágono, os bombardeios estão sendo realizados na cidade de Sirte a pedido do Governo de Coalizão Nacional líbio. Os ataques devem durar alguns dias e, segundo fontes, há forças especiais dos EUA em prontidão no Mediterrâneo.
Esta semana a Marinha da Itália revelou novos detalhes sobre a renovação de sua frota. Sete novas belonaves multifuncionais serão comissionadas ao valor de 5,4 bilhões de euros e devem ser entregues entre 2021 e 2026. Desenvolvidas nacionalmente, diversas inovações serão incorporadas para que os navios possam agir tanto para o resgate de migrantes no Mediterrâneo quanto para travar guerra naval, entre elas a tecnologia que quebra-ondas, radares AESA e mísseis antiaéreos Aster 15 e 30. Também estuda-se a incorporação de uma tecnologia semelhante ao Google Glass que permita ao navegador ter uma visão de 360º do navio.
Neste domingo (13/12), o Ministério da Defesa da Rússia convocou o adido militar turco em Moscou após um incidente no mar Egeu entre um navio militar russo e uma embarcação de pesca turca. O navio russo Smetlivy efetuou disparos de aviso e contatou os pescadores por rádio para evitar a colisão, ignoradas pelo barco da Turquia. Este só mudou o curso após a utilização de armas de fogo por parte do Smetlivy.
A companhia de energia italiana ENI anunciou neste domingo (30/08) a descoberta da maior reserva de gás natural do Mar Mediterrâneo, dentro da área marítima do território egípcio. O ministério da Energia do Egito já confirmou a existência da reserva, com potencial para 30 trilhões de pés cúbicos (tcf) de gás numa área com cerca de 100km², reserva que deve suprir a demanda de gás natural do Egito por no mínimo uma década. A empresa italiana pretente começar a extração no início do ano que vem.
Aviões caça e helicópteros militares da Turquia têm aumentado significativamente suas incursões pelo espaço aéreo grego, de acordo com estudo baseado em dados recolhidos pelas Forças Armadas da Grécia. No dia 15 de julho, seis caças turcos cruzaram a região equivalente ao espaço aéreo da Grécia 20 vezes, voos posteriores a uma séria de passagens de helicópteros na mesma área uma semana antes. Esse aumento de atividade militar turca junto aos limites territoriais da Grécia, pode fragilizar ainda mais o governo daquele país, pois aumentam-se os custos das Forças Armadas gregas.
A Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte (OTAN) realizará seu maior exercício militar em 10 anos no período de 3 de outubro a 6 de novembro, denominado Trident Juncture 2015, de acordo com declaração da porta-voz da Organização Oana Lungescu junto a outros generais da aliança na quarta-feira (15/07). O exercício ocorrerá na Itália, em Portugal e na Espanha, contando com a participação de mais de 12 organizações internacionais, entre elas a União Europeia (UE) e a União Africana (UA).
O presidente da Gâmbia, Yahya Jammeh, pediu ao Tribunal Penal Internacional (TPI) que se investigem as mortes de imigrantes africanos na costa europeia do Mar Mediterrâneo. Jammeh questionou o fato de que os barcos dos imigrantes naufragam frequentemente sob presença de embarcações militares europeias. Em 2015, nada menos do que 2.000 pessoas teriam morrido, e a Gâmbia é um dos principais países de origem dos imigrantes.
Na quinta-feira (23/04), os responsáveis pelas principais agências mundiais de migração, refugiados e direitos humanos da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) pediram à União Europeia que amplie a atual perspectiva minimalista em matéria de imigração. “[A perspetiva do] cumprimento das leis não vai resolver o problema da migração irregular, e apenas pode aumentar os riscos e abusos que sofrem os migrantes e refugiados”, disseram os representantes da ONU.
Nesta segunda-feira (20/04), a chefe da diplomacia da União Europeia, Federica Mogherini, anunciou um plano com dez ações imediatas para prevenir novas tragédias envolvendo refugiados no Mediterrâneo. As medidas contemplam a duplicação do número de barcos-patrulha da UE e também do orçamento para a missão de vigilância marítima Triton. Além disso, estão previstas a destruição dos barcos usados para o tráfico de pessoas, o acolhimento voluntário de ao menos 5 mil refugiados nas zonas de crise e o envio de especialistas para regiões como o Norte da África para realizar tarefas de inteligência.
Mais de 11 mil imigrantes desembarcaram na Itália nos últimos seis dias e centenas estão chegando à costa italiana neste fim de semana, informou a Polícia Marítima do país. Os imigrantes estão vindo primariamente da Líbia, que passa por um caos político desde a intervenção ocidental em 2011. Além disso, o bom tempo no Mediterrâneo nos últimos dias encoraja embarcações ilegais a rumarem à costa italiana.
O governo da Itália está cada vez mais próximo de aprovar um orçamento de 5,4 bilhões de euros (aproximadamente 18 bilhões de reais) para a renovação de sua marinha. A modernização da frota italiana é considerada bastante ambiciosa por incluir mais de oito belonaves. Empresas europeias já se preparam para apresentar novos produtos a Roma, tais como sonares, canhões e radares.
A Turquia afirmou com veemência nesta terça-feira (13/05) que não pagará a multa € 90 milhões (R$ 270 mi), definida no dia anterior em sentença da Corte Europeia de Direitos Humanos, por danos e violação de direitos humanos durante a invasão militar ao Chipre em 1974. “Não estamos pensando em pagar esta quantidade a um país que não reconhecemos”, declarou o ministro das Relações Exteriores da Turquia.
Um grupo de 300 pessoas, em sua maioria africanos subsaarianos, tentou, no dia 6 de fevereiro, passar pela fronteira que separa o Marrocos da Espanha. Impossibilitados de entrar pela via terrestre, uma parte do grupo decidiu tentar a sorte a nado, quando agentes responsáveis pelo controle da fronteira dispararam balas de borracha contra eles. Devido à ação policial, 15 pessoas morreram nas águas do Mediterrâneo, e as que conseguiram chegar à praia foram encaminhadas novamente ao lado marroquino da fronteira. Desde 1988, 19.507 pessoas morreram tentando entrar na Europa pela região do Mediterrâneo.
A Organização para a Proibição de Armas Químicas (OPAQ) informou nesta quarta (19/03) que mais de 45% do arsenal químico da Síria já foi removido do país. Destruição completa deve ocorrer até o final do mês de junho.
Próximo do Chipre, forças especiais dos Estados Unidos invadiram e assumiram controle do navio petroleiro que carregava petróleo cru exportado por rebeldes líbios. Coreia do Norte nega qualquer responsabilidade com relação ao navio.
A Marinha italiana informou nesta sexta-feira (03/01) que resgatou mais de mil imigrantes de barcos que tentavam chegar à Europa nas últimas 24 horas. Os estrangeiros, em sua maioria vindos da África e do Oriente Médio, estavam em cinco embarcações superlotadas.
Ministro de Relações Exteriores do Egito afirma que a aliança do país com os Estados Unidos não vai ser substituída por uma com a Rússia e que conversas com representantes russos foi apenas para aumentar os vínculos bilaterais.
Egypt not shifting allegiance from U.S. to Russia: foreign minister
The Japan Times / AP – 14/11/2013
Egypt’s foreign minister sought to downplay speculation of a major foreign policy shift, saying during a rare top-level Russian visit on Thursday that Cairo wants to boost ties with Moscow and not replace the United States as its key ally.
The remarks by Nabil Fahmy came after talks with his visiting counterpart, Sergei Lavrov, who is leading the Russian delegation to Cairo. It’s Moscow’s highest-level visit to Egypt in years and includes Russia’s defense minister, Sergei Shoigu, whose presence has set off rumors of an arms deal in the making.
Fahmy said he, Lavrov, Shigu and Egyptian Defense Minister Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi — who led the popularly-backed coup in July that ousted Egypt’s Islamist President Mohammed Morsi — would jointly meet later Thursday.
Depicting the meeting as an “activation” of existing ties, Fahmy said Egypt hopes for cooperation “in multiple fields” because of “Russia’s significance in the international arena.”
“We seek to energize a relation that is already in existence,” Fahmy told reporters.
When asked whether Russia would replace the U.S. as his country’s chief ally, Fahmy said Egypt was not looking for a “substitute for anyone” and that Russia was too significant for such a role.
“Russia has had a relationship with the Egyptian people for dozens of years,” Lavrov said, speaking through an interpreter. He described Thursday’s meeting as “historic.”
The Russian visit comes as Egypt’s relationship with the United States — Cairo’s main foreign backer and benefactor since the 1970s — has become increasingly strained in the wake of the military’s ouster of Morsi, Egypt’s first freely elected president.
Lavrov also said Russia supports a return of stability to Egypt — a reference to the turmoil roiling the country since the 2011 uprising that ousted staunch U.S. ally Hosni Mubarak.
“Russia would like to see a stable Egypt with a prosperous economy and an efficient political system,” he said, offering support for a transition-to-democracy plan by Egypt’s military-backed rulers, including an upcoming referendum on new constitutional amendments.
The vote is first step in the interim government’s fast track plan is aimed at returning to democratic rule by next year.
Egypt was Moscow’s closest Arab ally for two decades, starting in the 1950s, with the Soviet Union throwing its weight behind the late nationalist leader Gamal Abdel-Nasser in his ambitious drive to modernize the Arab nation and create a well-armed military at the height of the Cold War and the Arab-Israeli conflict.
But in 1972, then-President Anwar Sadat threw out thousands of Soviet military advisers and realigned the country’s foreign policy, taking his nation closer to the United States soon after the 1973 Mideast war.
Egypt’s relations with the Soviet Union took a marked turn for the worse after Moscow’s invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, but relations have steadily improved in recent years, with hundreds of thousands of Russians vacationing in Egypt every year.
The United States last month froze a big chunk of its annual $1.3 billion military aid to Egypt. The move angered the Egyptians and prompted speculation in the local media that Egypt intended to sign a multibillion dollar weapons deal with Russia. But there has so far been no official word from Cairo or Moscow on such a deal.
The Interfax news agency recently quoted an unidentified official of the state Rosoboron export arms trader as saying that there are no plans to sign big contracts during the Cairo talks.
It said Egypt has shown interest in purchasing Russian air defense missile systems and MiG-29 fighter jets, combat helicopters and other weapons. But it quoted an unnamed official dealing with arms trade as saying that no big deals are expected in the near future as Egypt currently can’t afford it.
Rússia fornecerá armamentos modernos ao Egito, caso Cairo seja capaz de financiar as compras. Seria a primeira vez que isso ocorre desde o início dos anos 1970.
Russia Ready to Sell Weapons to Egypt – Arms Exporter
RIA Novosti – 08/11/2013
Russia will supply modern weaponry to Egypt, provided that Cairo is able to finance the purchases, a high-ranking official at Russia’s state arms exporter Rosoboronexport said Friday.
Rumors about Egypt turning toward Russia for military assistance to meet its security needs, following the partial suspension of military aid and equipment deliveries from the United States, have been circulating in the media since last week.
Various reports indicated that Egypt is considering spending at least $4 billion on advanced weaponry from Russia.
“We are ready to negotiate with the Egyptian side the possibility of deliveries of new weaponry as well as repairing equipment supplied in Soviet times,” the Rosoboronexport official told RIA Novosti.
He said such new deliveries would depend on Egypt’s ability to pay for them. But he noted, “Moscow is ready to discuss with Cairo a possible loan to that country.”
He spoke on condition of anonymity due to the sensitive nature of the subject.
Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Alexander Lukashevich said earlier Friday that Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu and Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov will meet with their Egyptian counterparts during their visit to Egypt on November 13-14.
The Russian delegation will include the first deputy director of the Federal Service on Military-Technical Cooperation, Andrei Boitsov, and Rosoboronexport officials.
“The upcoming visit will help us to outline the prospects of our [defense] cooperation,” the Rosoboronexport source said.
For Moscow, the renewal of military ties with Egypt could signify a return in force to the Middle East while US diplomacy is failing all over the region.
The Soviet Union and Egypt enjoyed close ties during the 1960s and early 1970s, when the Arab country was led by Abdel Nasser. Cairo purchased a variety of Soviet-made military equipment, including tanks, armored personnel carriers and fighter jets under Nasser.
But within years after Nasser’s death, the new president Anwar Sadat started reorienting the country toward the West and expelled about 20,000 Russian military advisers stationed in Egypt in July 1972.
Egypt has never acquired Russian weapons since then.
As marinhas de Itália e Rússia estão realizando exercícios militares navais no Mediterrâneo para melhorar a interoperabilidade em operações conjuntas. Chamado de Ioniex, exercício vem ocorrendo regularmente desde 2004.
Russia, Italy Hold Naval Drills in Mediterranean
RIA Novosti – 05/11/2013
Russia and Italy are holding naval drills in the Mediterranean to improve interoperability in joint operations, a spokesman for Russia’s Black Sea Fleet said Tuesday.
A Russian Kashin-class frigate, the Smetlivy, arrived at the Italian port of Taranto on Monday to join the Ioniex-2013 exercise off the Italian coast on November 5-9, Capt. 1st Rank Vyacheslav Trukhachev said.
The frigate is part of Russia’s permanent task force in the eastern Mediterranean, established late last year “to protect Russia’s interests in the region.”
The Italian side is represented by the destroyer Durand de la Penne, the frigate Espero, a submarine and several naval aircraft.
The planning phase of the exercise will continue until November 6, followed by joint training missions in the Ionian Sea on November 7-9, Trukhachev said.
Russia and Italy have been conducting Ioniex drills since 2004 as part of a cooperation program between their navies. The Smetlivy participated in the drills in 2011 and 2012.
Após a captura de Abu Anas al-Libi, suposto membro do alto escalão do grupo terrorista Al-Qaeda, situação na Líbia fica tensa, e os Estados Unidos desloca 200 fuzileiros navais da Espanha para a Itália, país da OTAN mais próximo da Líbia, alegando prudência.
US moves Marines to Italy as situation in Libya becomes tense
RT – 08/10/2013
Two hundred United States Marines are being mobilized from a base in Spain to an Italian site neighboring Libya where an Army raid over the weekend resulted in the capture of suspected Al-Qaeda terrorist, Abu Anas al-Libi.
CNN reported early Tuesday that a US military official confirmed the repositioning of 200 heavily armed Marines to the naval base at Sigonella, Italy, a Sicilian fort south of Catania that sits on the opposite side of the Mediterranean from Libya.
According to the military source, the US Department of State aided in the troop movement and considers the maneuver “a prudent measure”following Saturday’s raid in Tripoli. There is now the potential for a security crisis to arise at the US Embassy in Libya, CNN reported, should tensions worsen as a result of the capture.
Al-Libi, 49, was picked up from his Tripoli home on Saturday and is currently being held on the USS San Antonio in international waters. He was charged previously with the 1998 bombings that targeted US embassies in Tanzania in Kenya, which resulted in the deaths of 224 people, including a dozen Americans.
US Secretary of State John Kerry responded this week to the capture, by calling al-Libi a “legal and appropriate target” for the US, and senior officials have linked him with high-ranking members of the al-Qaeda organization formerly led by Osama bin Laden.
“I hope the perception is in the world that people who commit acts of terror and who have been appropriately indicted by courts of law, by the legal process, will know that the United States of America is going to do anything in its power that is legal and appropriate in order to enforce the law and to protect our security,” added Kerry.
But LANA, the official news agency of Libya, reported that government officials are referring to Saturday’s incident as an abduction, and the US ambassador has been summoned to speak with authorities regarding the raid.
“Our relationship with the USA is important, and we care about that, but we care too about our citizens, which is our duty,” Libya Prime Minister Ali Zeidan told reporters on Tuesday.
Libyan groups are now protesting the raid and the subsequent capture of al-Libi, and are reportedly seeking to avenge the event. According to Reuters, a Facebook page called “Benghazi is Protected by its People” has instructed Libyans to kidnap US citizens if possible and close off the entrances and exits to Tripoli.
Last September, the storming of a US consulate building in Benghazi, Libya ended in the death of four Americans, including Ambassador Chris Stevens. A State Department travel warning last updated in June warns US citizens against traveling to Libya, citing a still unpredictable security situation.
While a surge of Marines has been deployed across the Mediterranean from Libya in the event of another incident targeting American facilities, military, intelligence and Department of Justice officials have reportedly been sent to the USS San Antonio to interrogate al-Libi while he remains detained in international waters.
“As a general rule, the government will always seek to elicit all the actionable intelligence and information we can from terrorist suspects taken into our custody,” National Security Council spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden told the Associated Press. “Determining when and where to prosecute individuals is a traditional and important executive branch authority that has long been exercised on a case-by-case basis, taking into account all relevant factors — such decisions are not made arbitrarily.”
A Marinha russa está reunindo no mar Mediterrâneo a maior força naval desde a queda da URSS. O que poderá fazer a força operacional russa em caso de agravamento da situação?
Russia sends more naval ships to Syrian coast
By Gabriela Baczynska
MOSCOW | Fri Sep 6, 2013 10:35am EDT
(Reuters) – Russia is sending more naval vessels to the coast of Syria, state news agencies reported on Friday, in a move Moscow says will help prevent a threatened U.S. attack on its ally President Bashar al-Assad.
The Russian Defence Ministry said in late August it would carry out a routine rotation of its ships off Syria.
But local media said on Friday additional units were also on the way. Interfax news agency quoted an unnamed navy source as saying large landing ship Nikolai Filchenkov was heading for the eastern Mediterranean.
“The vessel will dock in Novorossiysk where it will take special cargo on board and head to the designated area of military service in the eastern Mediterranean,” the source said without giving more details.
RIA news agency quoted an unnamed senior navy source as saying on Friday that the frigate Smetlivy would leave for the Mediterranean on September 12-14 and the corvette Shtil and missile boat Ivanovets would approach Syria at the end of the month.
The Defence Ministry declined to comment on the reports but Deputy Defence Minister Anatoly Antonov said on Thursday the Russian navy currently had a “pretty strong group” there.
“The Russian navy does not intend to take part directly or indirectly in a possible regional conflict,” he told the state Rossiya 24 broadcaster.
“Our navy vessels are a guarantee of stability, guarantee of peace, an attempt to hold back other forces ready to start military action in the region.”
Landing ships Minsk and Novocherkassk and the reconnaissance ship Prirazovye passed through the Bosphorus on September 5. on their way to the Mediterranean and Moscow has also sent missile cruiser Moskva and destroyer Admiral Panteleyev there.
Russia has a small naval facility in the Syrian port of Tartous, its only naval base outside the former Soviet Union.
Western and Arab states seek to oust Assad, and the United States is considering military strikes to punish Damascus for its alleged use of chemical weapons.
Russia, a long-time weapons supplier to Damascus, opposes any U.S. intervention, saying it would lack a mandate from the U.N. Security Council, where Moscow has blocked Western-led attempts to increase pressure on Assad.
The West accuses Russia of protecting Assad and the dispute has overshadowed a G20 summit in St Petersburg this week.
(Editing by Andrew Roche)
Russian Navy to hold biggest war games in decades
RT – 02/01/2012
The four major Russian Navy fleets will hold a joint exercise in late January in the Mediterranean and Black seas. It will be the biggest such event in decades.
Commands for the Northern, Baltic, Black Sea and Pacific fleets have been preparing for the exercises since December of last year, the Russian Defense Ministry has announced. Warships detached for the event are currently sailing to those regions.
“The primary goal of the exercise is to train issues regarding formation of a battle group consisting of troops of different branches outside of the Russian Federation, planning of its deployment and managing a coordinated action of a joint Navy group in accordance with a common plan,” the ministry’s information department explained. (mais…)
Israel ramps up drilling patrols
Famagusta Gazette – 07/10/2011
Israel is reported to have boosted their military presence in the sea south of Cyprus, according to state broadcaster CyBC.
The increase in military operations, which includes fighter jets and war ships patrolling near to Nobel offshore drilling rig, is designed to send a message to Turkey that “they are not the gatekeeper of the Mediterranean.”
According to the Wall Street Journal, the US Secretary of State Hilary Clinton has told Turkey to tone down their threats against Cyprus.
Separately, Turkey’s only research vessel the Piri Reis is still anchored in Famagusta port on the east coast of Cyprus. According to Radio Napa, several Turkish navy ships have also docked in Famagusta over the past week. (mais…)
Greek PM urges Cyprus calm in call with Turkish PM-spox
Reuters / Lefteris Papadimas, Ingrid Melander – 26 de setembro de 2011
Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou called for calm over Cyprus in a phone conversation with Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan on Monday, a Greek government spokesman said, as regional tensions rise over oil exploration.
“Two hours ago, the Prime Minister had a telephone conversation with Mr Erdogan,” government spokesman Ilias Mosialos told reporters. “The Prime Minister said there should be self-constraint and calm” over Cyprus, Mosialos said.
A Turkish oil exploration vessel left the Aegean port of Izmir on Friday to carry out surveys off northern Cyprus amid tensions with Greek Cypriots on the divided island over rights to hydrocarbon reserves in the eastern Mediterranean.
Regional tension rose after Cyprus’s Greek Cypriot government announced on Tuesday that drilling had begun in a southeast offshore area adjoining a gas field in Israeli waters reputed to be the world’s largest find in the past decade. (mais…)