Em visita no Uzbequistão, o presidente da China, Xi Jinping, e o presidente uzbeque, Islam Karimov, inauguraram o túnel ferroviário Qamchiq nesta quarta-feira (22/06). O túnel, que atravessa as montanhas Qurama e foi construído e financiado por Pequim, tem 19,2 km de extensão e vai da capital Tashkent a Namangan. A obra é considerada um marco da iniciativa chinesa “One Belt, One Road” de uma nova rota da seda na Ásia Central.
Nesta terça-feira (26/01), o Talibã explodiu uma linha de transmissão de energia elétrica que conectava Uzbequistão à capital do Afeganistão, Cabul. O ataque teria sido uma reação à uma grande operação realizada por Forças de segurança do país para retomar territórios controlados pelo grupo. Assim, foi demonstrada a vulnerabilidade da infraestrutura energética afegã, principalmente suas conexões com a Ásia Central.
Em artigo publicado na revista The Diplomat no início de setembro, o analista Samuel Ramani averigua a crescente relação entre a Coreia do Sul e o Uzbequistão. Aproximação se deu por interesses econômicos, principalmente no setor energético, e por afinidade cultural e normativa. Para Ramani, Seul poderia se tornar uma alternativa a Rússia ou China para os países da Ásia Central.
Para dar continuidade as suas operações de combate ao terrorismo após a retirada de tropas do Afeganistão no final deste ano, os Estados Unidos estariam planejando manter drones em bases aéreas na Ásia Central.
Apesar dos discursos e da vontade chinesa, a cooperação ainda é muito difícil entre os países da Organização para Cooperação de Xangai (OCX). Caso notável é o da construção de rodovias interconectando os países-membros da organização.
Relatório do Banco Mundial diz que produção agrícola do Uzbequistão deve cair até 30% nas próximas décadas devido ao aumento das temperaturas na região. País é altamente dependente das exportações de algodão e trigo e frequentemente se envolve em tensões diplomáticas com outros países centro-asiáticos sobre sistemas de irrigação e barragens.
Em visita a Tashkent, premiê chinês Li Keqiang pede um aprofundamento os laços do país com o Uzbequistão com maior cooperação bilateral. Reconhece também o valor da Organização de Cooperação de Xangai (OCX) para a manutenção da segurança regional.
Chinese premier calls for deeper ties with Uzbekistan
Xinhua – 28/11/2013
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said on Thursday that his country is ready to explore new cooperation fields with Uzbekistan and push bilateral relations to a new high.
Li made the remarks during a meeting with Uzbek President Islam Karimov. “Uzbekistan is a reliable, good friend and partner for China in Central Asia,” Li said.
Noting Chinese President Xi Jinping’s recent visit to the country, which injected strong impetus into bilateral ties, Li said China is willing to work with Uzbekistan to implement the consensus reached by the heads of state of the two countries.
Meanwhile, China is also ready to continuously expand new areas of cooperation with Uzbekistan so as to elevate their strategic partnership to a higher level, the Chinese premier said.
The sound development of China-Uzbekistan relations is based on deep political mutual trust between the two countries, Li said, adding that their cooperation is aimed at achieving win-win results based on equality and without preconditions.
The two countries have already witnessed fruitful cooperation in energy, and may take advantage of each other’s complementarity to further deepen energy cooperation and make progress in all other areas as well, he said.
“The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has become an effective mechanism and a reliable guarantee for maintaining regional security and promoting common development,” Li said.
The Chinese premier said he will join hands with other leaders attending the upcoming SCO meeting to push forward the implementation of the results of the SCO summit in Bishkek, and deepen practical cooperation in security, economic and cultural fields.
Maintaining regional peace and stability so as to create a favorable environment for regional development is in the interests of all Central Asian countries, Li said, adding China is willing to communicate and coordinate with countries in the region closely with a view to building a Central Asia of lasting peace and common prosperity.
Karimov said he believes Li’s visit will further advance the strategic partnership between Uzbekistan and China, which has solid foundation and broad prospect for development.
China has been sticking to the principle of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, said the Uzbek president, adding that his country is ready to join hands with China to enhance their cooperation and benefit the two peoples.
Li arrived here Thursday after wrapping up a visit to Romania, where he also attended a China-Central and Eastern Europe leaders’ meeting.
Uzbek voices muted in Kyrgyzstan
Asia Times – 04/10/2012 – por RFE/RL
In June 2010, southern Kyrgyzstan erupted in violence between the Uzbek minority and Kyrgyz majority. Almost 500 people were killed, hundreds injured, and many thousands left homeless in the Osh and Jalal-Abad regions.
Most of the victims were ethnic Uzbeks and many members of the minority have since been tried and sentenced to long prison terms over the violence. Critics have attacked the government’s failure to provide equal justice for the Uzbek minority. (mais…)
Kazakhstan expands gas capacity to China
Asia Times – 16/08/2012 – por Vladimir Socor
The longest section of the Turkmenistan-Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan-China transit pipeline passes through Kazakhstan’s territory: it measures 1,115 kilometers in length, of the total 1,830-kilometer Turkmenistan-China distance. Kazakhstan is adding a dedicated export pipeline for its own gas exports to China. In combination, these developments (alongside planned oil exports) confer to Kazakhstan a major role in China’s energy security calculations. (mais…)
Uzbekistan cuts gas supply to Tajikistan without notification – Tajik Foreign Ministry
RIA Novosti – 04/01/2012
Uzbekistan cut supplies of natural gas to Tajikistan on Wednesday, Tajik Foreign Ministry spokesman Davlat Nazriev said.
“TajikTransGaz applied to Uztransgaz to sign an agreement on supplying natural gas in 2012, but the Uzbek party postponed the signing of the contract,” Nazriev said.
Nazreiv added that on December 22, Tajik Deputy Prime Minister Murodali Alimardon sent an official letter on signing the agreement to Uzbek First Deputy Prime Minister Rusatm Azimov. In his reply, Azimov wrote that the issue of supplying Uzbek natural gas had not been resolved with the main buyers, i.e. China and Russia, so “the signing of the agreement between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan does not seem possible.”
“Today the Uzbek ambassador in Dushanbe received a letter from Tajik President Emomali Rakhmon to Isalm Karimov,” said Nazriev. (mais…)
China issues first evaluation report on SCO
Xinhua News – 25/09/2011
China issued its first evaluation report on the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) on Friday reviewing its development since it was established 10 years ago.
This report was initially released on a sideline event of the ongoing 2011 Euro-Asia Economic Forum in Xi’an, capital city of northwestern Shaanxi Province.
As the co-work by a group of experts from Chinese Academy of Social Sciences(CASS) and some other major institutions related to SCO studies in China, the report is expected to provide necessary reference to relevant governmental departments in their work related to the SCO, and to provide convenient information about SCO for the public both in and out of China, said Zhang Deguang, secretary-general of the forum.
This year marks the 10th anniversary of the establishment of the SCO. The report focuses on the systemic review and assessment of the 10 years’ development of cooperation in the SCO in the fields of security, military, regional economic cooperation, energy, culture and education, said Wang Tao, deputy director of the office of Euro-Asia Forum Executive Committee. (mais…)